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【理想的好大学】巴菲奥(L. A. Belfiore):形成一流大学的几个关键要素

2016-12-06  点击:[]

 学生是最重要的因素,因为他们是未来的使者,在他们的职业生涯中宣传着他们的母校。因此,选择高质量的学生至关重要。学校应建立确保入学新生在通过国家组织的数学和语言考试的入学成绩高于全国平均水平的政策。此外,优秀升学申请者应根据他所在的高中毕业班排名确定。公布每个新生班的高中毕业致辞的学生代表数量(即在高中每个毕业班中排名第一的学生)。同时,每个新生班中的国家优秀学生的百分比也是学生质量优秀的指标。优秀的学生在其大学生涯中应有在研究实验室中工作的机会。

  Students represent one of the most important factors because they are future ambassadors that publicize the quality of their university during their professional career.  Hence, procedures for selecting high-quality students is a critical component.  University policy should be established to guarantee that student entrance exam scores via math and verbal testing are above the national average.  Furthermore, excellent student applicants should be identified based on high-school graduating class rankings.  The number of high school valedictorians (i.e., 1st ranked student in each graduating class) in each entering freshman class should be publicized.  Also, the percentage of national merit scholars in each entering freshman class is a good indicator of student quality.  Opportunities should exist for excellent students to work in research laboratories during their undergraduate career.

 教师是大学的核心,所以基于完善的晋升和任期聘请制度,并将高质量的最好的教师留住是至关重要。海外留学经验在招聘过程中应该作为重要考虑因素。教师晋升和任期的标准应基于:(1)发表学术论文的数量和质量;(2)外部资助研究项目的数量;(3)国内以及国际会议中的演讲和报告数量。对于大学内所有从事研究的部门,这些指标应该按每名教师每年制表。在任期和晋升之后,高级教师的重要指标应该包括那些在工程和科学中已被评选为国家称号的教师。这是最重要的奖项之一,将推动一所大学成为一个精英团体学术机构。认可著有国际水平教科书并获得全球其他大学荣誉学位等成就的教师。对于从事前沿研究教师的资助是所有一流大学的重要指标。其他重要的教师奖项,例如(1)国家级优秀基金获得者,(2)国家级人才称号的教授,(3)国内认可的杰出教学学者。最后,作为国内和国际期刊编辑和编辑委员会成员,他们为科学和工程界贡献时间和精力的教师,其服务应被认可。

   Faculty represent the heart of a university, so it is important to recruit high-quality candidates and retain the best faculty based on well-established guidelines for promotion and tenure.  Graduate or post-graduate research experience outside of China should be an important consideration in the recruitment process.  Strong consideration for faculty promotion and tenure should be based on (i) number and quality of scholarly publications, (ii) amount of externally funded research projects, and (iii) keynote and plenary lectures at national and international meetings.  These metrics should be tabulated per faculty member per year for all university departments engaged in research.  After a successful tenure and promotion process, important metrics for senior faculty should include those who have been elected to national academies in engineering and science.  This is one of the most important award categories that will propel a university into an elite group of learning institutions.  Faculty who have (i) written textbooks and (ii) received honorary degrees from other universities worldwide should be recognized for these accomplishments.  Endowed chairs for faculty engaged in cutting-edge research is an important metric for any top-notch university.  Other important faculty awards, such as (i) outstanding foundation winners at the national level, (ii) professors with national level talent titles, and (iii) distinguished teaching scholars provide recognition within China.  Finally, faculty who devote time and effort to the science and engineering community as editors and editorial board members of national and international journals should be recognized for their service.

 行政部门:最重要的注意事项是管理者应该为教师提供资源和激励性的智力环境,以便其有效的教学、训练学生及科研。高级管理人员在地方和国家级常设委员任职有利于重点实验室和大学基础建设吸引外部支持。

Administration:  The most important consideration, here, is that administrators should provide resources and a stimulating intellectual environment for faculty to teach, train graduate students, and perform research effectively.  It is beneficial if upper level administrators have served on standing committees at the local and national level because this activity might attract external support for key laboratories and university infrastructure.

 奖学金:地方和中央政府机构的财政支持是实施大学的使命的必要条件。奖学金应为各级学生提供机会:(1)本科生,(2)研究生,(3)博士后。来自成功校友的资助将对吸引具有良好成就的教师起到促进作用。地方和中央政府的支持应该在竞争的基础上鼓励教师定期学术休假(即在任期结束后每5-8年,教师进修学术访问和研修),应鼓励休假中的教师访问中国以外的优秀实验室的大学。一流大学应欢迎并接受外国科学家和工程师作为研讨会、研究合作者、学生导师和竞争性政府项目访问教授的定期访问。

Scholarships:  Financial support from local and central government agencies is required to implement the mission of a university.  Obviously, scholarships are necessary to provide opportunities for students at all levels: (i) undergraduate, (ii) graduate, and (iii) post-doctoral.  Gifts from successful alumni will establish endowed chairs that can be leveraged to attract top-notch faculty with excellent records of accomplishment.  Local and central government support should be available on a competitive basis to encourage faculty sabbaticals on a regular cycle (i.e., every 5-to-8 years after tenure is received).  Faculty on sabbatical should be encouraged to visit distinguished laboratories and universities outside of China.  First-level universities should welcome regular visits from foreign scientists and engineers for (i) seminars, (ii) research cooperations, (iii) graduate student guidance, and (iv) visiting professorships via competitive government programs.

 科研设备:该部分对支持实验科研项目至关重要。校内每个教师和中心实验设施的个人实验室空间应高于全国平均水平。竞争性政府项目对购买新设备和国家重点实验室的支持应被记录并公布,因为这些项目可能是影响特殊才能的教师选择青岛大学作为追求卓越科研家园的决定性因素。

  Research equipment:  This component is critical to support experimental research programs.  Individual laboratory space per faculty member and central laboratory facilities available to all research groups on campus should be above the national average.  Competitive government programs that support the (i) purchase of new equipment, and (ii) state key laboratories should be documented and publicized because these programs could be one of the deciding factors that influence exceptionally talented faculty recruits to choose Qingdao University as a home to pursue research excellence.

 巴菲奥(L. A. Belfiore):青岛大学杂化材料研究院“外专千人计划”国家特聘专家、教授,本文翻译:杨兰兰。

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